Fruit of the Vine
The Bible does not specify what is to be drunk for Passover nor how many times something is to be drunk that evening. It is very doubtful that the Hebrew slaves had any form of wine. The water always needed to be boiled to make it safe. There were very few wells. Most ancient Egyptians did not want to drink water directly from the Nile River. It offered fresh water, but the ancient Egyptians had observed that people became sick after drinking the water. Milk was an option as it was available from the livestock, however it was very limited. A common drink for all in ancient Egypt was a type of bread beer. It was nutritious and was also much safer than drinking water from the Nile.
For centuries the Jewish community has used an outline for the Haggadah that says four cups of the fruit of the vine is to be used for Passover. The reason for this decision to have four cups of drink comes from the verbs used in
Wherefore say unto the children of Israel, I am the LORD, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will redeem you with a stretched out arm, and with great judgments: And I will take you to me for a people, and I will be to you a God: and ye shall know that I am the LORD your God
לכן אמר לבני ישׂראל אני יהוה והוצאתי אתכם מתחת סבלת מצרים והצלתי אתכם מעבדתם וגאלתי אתכם בזרוע נטויה ובשׁפטים גדלים
ולקחתי אתכם לי לעם והייתי לכם לאלהים וידעתם כי אני יהוה אלהיכם
1. “I will take you out…” והוצאתי
2. “I will save you…” והצלתי
3. “I will redeem you…” וגאלתי
4. “I will take you as a nation…” ולקחתי
For reasons explained by the Creator we also see at the Lord’s Passover four cups of wine were mentioned in this order. Verse 17 – First, the cup before supper which has been called “I will bring you out”. This is the true freedom from the great slave-master, Satin, who has had control of mankind since Adam and Eve followed him in the Garden of Eden. Verse 18 – The fourth cup is mentioned but is then set aside for future use. Jesus tells His disciples that He will not drink it until we are with Him in the kingdom. It is called the cup of fellowship or I will take you as my people. His people will be carried to the King of Kings and forever will be free. Verse 20 – The second cup is served after the full meal and it is this cup that represents the New Covenant by which we are saved. It is called the cup of deliverance or I will save you. We are delivered from sin and rescued from it’s penalty. It is this second cup that we use for communion. They now sing a hymn and go to the Mount of Olives. Verse 42 – In the garden of Gethsemane is where Jesus mentions the third cup. He does not drink it there, he only mentions it. Hours later, just before He dismisses His Spirit, he drinks this third cup. This is the only cup we do not drink with Him. This cup is called the cup of redemption. John 19:28-30 – Only the true Messiah, the true kinsman redeemer could pay the price required to buy us back.
Migdal – Watchtower – מגדל
אשׁירה נא לידידי שׁירת דודי לכרמו כרם היה לידידי בקרן בן שׁמן
ויעזקהו ויסקלהו ויטעהו שׂרק ויבן מגדל בתוכו וגם יקב חצב בו ויקו לעשׂות ענבים ויעשׂ באשׁים
Now will I sing to my well beloved a song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well beloved hath a vineyard in a very fruitful hill: And he fenced it, and gathered out the stones thereof, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a wine press therein: and he looked that it should bring forth grapes, … Isaiah 5:1-2
If you go on a search for the Holy Grail or an expensive cup used at the Lord’s Passover, you would be on the wrong trail. Other than a wealthy person, pottery was always used when a vessel needed to be kosher. They are inexpensive, may be decorated or colored according to the occasion and may be discarded if kosher is in question.
Pottery shards in Israel. There is hardly a place in Israel where you kick the ground that you wont find a piece of ancient pottery.
The First cup
And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. And he said unto them, With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer: For I say unto you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: Luke 22:14-17
This first cup “I will bring you out” was very significant because large groups would gather and set aside the evening for this special service.
Speak ye unto all the congregation of Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month they shall take to them every man a lamb, according to the house of their fathers, a lamb for an house: And if the household be too little for the lamb, let him and his neighbor next unto his house take it according to the number of the souls; every man according to his eating shall make your count for the lamb. Exodus 12:3,4
ויקחו להם אישׁ שׂה לבית אבת שׂה לבית
The Passover is a home service, a family service, a community service, a national service, a service for the redeemed. It was to be shared among each other. The entire lamb had to be eaten before dawn so counting the number of participants was very important as meat was a rare delicacy for common people and not much could be wasted. When the Children of Israel were in the land God had given them and He placed His name in Jerusalem they were all required to go to Jerusalem and conduct the Pascal service. Flavius Josephus wrote about the number in Jerusalem for Passover: “On this day they slay their sacrifices from the ninth hour until the eleventh, with a company of not less than ten belonging to every sacrifice — for it is not lawful for them to have the feast singly by themselves –– and many of us are twenty in a company. These priests found the number of the sacrifices was two hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred; which, if we assume no more than ten feasted together, amounts to two million seven hundred thousand and two hundred persons;“. (There are those who question this large number but those questioning Josephus could only offer conjecture.)
When Jesus was 12 years old there is a record of His family and relatives going to Jerusalem for the Passover. Luke 2:41-44
Now his parents went to Jerusalem every year at the feast of the passover. And when he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem after the custom of the feast. And when they had fulfilled the days, as they returned, the child Jesus tarried behind in Jerusalem; and Joseph and his mother knew not of it. But they, supposing him to have been in the company, went a day’s journey; and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance.
For the last 40 years we have conducted Passover Seders which have been attended by over 14,000 people. At these services we try to accommodate our guests by arranging tables where family and friends can easily sit together.
The second cup – cup of deliverance
Exodus 6:6 and I will rid (rid is an arcaic middle English word that means a. save b. rescue c. to make free) you out of their bondage
The Hebrew word is as follows with the prefixes and suffixes which means “and I will save you”
This Hebrew word is used in the Scripture to mean:
to take away, snatch away, save
to rescue, recover
to deliver (from enemies or troubles or death)
to deliver from sin and guilt
Jesus said this second cup was the cup of the “new testament” (covenant).
Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood, which is shed for you. Luke 22:20
Some people absolutely hate it when the first part of the Bible is called the Old Testament or “Old Covenant”. This is not something Gentiles have just come up with. This has been God’s plan since the creation of the Earth, to change the heart of man so he can make it man’s choice to freely love and serve the Creator free from sin and guilt. The Old Covenant did not change the heart of man, it just proved him guilty and worthy of death for the slightest infraction of the Law.
And while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. And they that found him gathering sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, and unto all the congregation. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him. And the LORD said unto Moses, The man shall be surely put to death: all the congregation shall stone him with stones without the camp. And all the congregation brought him without the camp, and stoned him with stones, and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses. Numbers 15:32-36
Some people will say, “well, that’s the old way, but things have changed”. Yes the plan all along was for it to change as these lessons have tried to explain. From before the foundation of the Earth the Creator had set in motion this change.
According as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, that we should be holy and without blame before him in love: Ephesians 1:4
Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot: Who verily was foreordained before the foundation of the world, but was manifest in these last times for you, 1 Peter 1:18-20
The last 39 books of the Bible are called the New Testament because that is where the “New Testament” (Covenant) as given to the world is found and explained in detail.
The “New Covenant” as given to the Children of Israel is found in the scroll of Jeremiah.
This scroll of Jeremiah was written in Poland in the 1800s.
For the last 6,000 years, since the Earth was created, God has made many covenants with mankind.
This “New Covenant” in the blood of Christ the Lamb is celebrated in the church, the called out assembly, by the name communion with the second cup of Passover, the Lord’s supper.
The third cup – cup of redemption
Exodus 6:6 and I will redeem you
This word is used in the Scripture to mean:
– to act as kinsman,
– do the part of next of kin,
– act as kinsman-redeemer,
– to redeem from slavery,
– to redeem land,
– to exact vengeance,
– to redeem by payment
Adam our forefather lost it all.
He lost the inheritance.
Genesis 1-5; Romans 5
- And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good.
- And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.
- And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou?
- Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat?
- Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden
- and he died
- Wherefore, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men, for that all have sinned:
Who will redeem us from this loss?
Who will set us free from this slavery?
Who will restore our inheritance?
JESUS The Messiah our kinsman redeemer
A kinsman redeemer must have a blood relationship
But when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ. Galatians 4:4-7
A kinsman redeemer must have the necessary resources
Forasmuch as ye know that ye were not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold, from your vain conversation received by tradition from your fathers; But with the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot:
1 Peter 1:18,19
A kinsman redeemer must be Willing to Pay
For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life. For God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world; but that the world through him might be saved. John 3:16, 17
No man taketh it from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it down, and I have power to take it again. This commandment have I received of my Father. John 10:18
Jesus speaks of this third cup in the Garden of Gethsemane.
Gethsemane means oil press
And he came out, and went, as he was wont, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him. And when he was at the place, he said unto them, Pray that ye enter not into temptation. And he was withdrawn from them about a stone’s cast, and kneeled down, and prayed, Saying, Father, if thou be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but thine, be done. And there appeared an angel unto him from heaven, strengthening him. And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. Luke 22:39-44
He is the only one who has the authority to buy us back and give us our inheritance. Do you know our kinsman redeemer? Do you know His name?
Read Proverbs 30:4
Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended? who hath gathered the wind in his fists? who hath bound the waters in a garment? who hath established all the ends of the earth? what is his name, and what is his son’s name, if thou canst tell?
מי עלה שׁמים וירד מי אסף רוח בחפניו מי צרר מים בשׂמלה מי הקים כל־אפסי ארץ מה שׁמו ומה שׁם בנו כי תדע׃
This is where He made the payment.
Photo of Gordon’s Calvary 1890s
(Note: This hill just outside the old city walls of Jerusalem is where the Roman soldiers conducted many crucifixions. It overlooked the city and was situated by a well traveled road. The indentations on the face of the cliff are not natural as it would not keep this form through time and the seasonal changes. No doubt though, someone is always chipping out the face of the cliff to look like a skull.)
gulgoleth – skull
This word is found in the Hebrew Scriptures as follows: And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech’s head, and all to brake his skull. Judges 9:53
ותשׁלך אשׁה אחת פלח רכב על ראשׁ אבימלך ותרץ את גלגלתו
And after that they had mocked him, they took the robe off from him, and put his own raiment on him, and led him away to crucify him. And as they came out, they found a man of Cyrene, Simon by name: him they compelled to bear his cross. And when they were come unto a place called Golgotha, that is to say, a place of a skull,
Reproach hath broken my heart; and I am full of heaviness: and I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for comforters, but I found none. They gave me also gall for my meat; and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.
Psalm 69:20, 21
Hebrew Bible Psalm 69:21, 22
חרפה שׁברה לבי ואנושׁה ואקוה לנוד ואין ולמנחמים ולא מצאתי
ויתנו בברותי ראשׁ ולצמאי ישׁקוני חמץ
They gave him vinegar to drink mingled with gall: and when he had tasted thereof, he would not drink. (Note: This was not a narcotic as some say and it also was not wine as other say.)
And they crucified him, and parted his garments, casting lots: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophet, They parted my garments among them, and upon my vesture did they cast lots. And sitting down they watched him there; And set up over his head his accusation written, THIS IS JESUS THE KING OF THE JEWS. Then were there two thieves crucified with him, one on the right hand, and another on the left. And they that passed by reviled him, wagging their heads, And saying, Thou that destroyest the temple, and buildest it in three days, save thyself. If thou be the Son of God, come down from the cross. Matthew 27:31-40
Golgotha 2,000 years later
The Messiah’s words as recorded in
Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do.
It is very near the time for Jesus to drink the third cup, the cup of redemption, the cup of paying the price to buy us back from all we lost. He must be separated from the Father for us, to take our place.
The Scroll of Psalms is very rare. The Scroll in this photo came from a small Synagogue in Jerusalem. They let us purchase this one for our collection upon commissioning a new Scroll to be written. The Scroll is in the wood carver’s shop where the Etz Hayim (wooden rollers for Scrolls) are being installed. Etz Chaim means “tree of Life” and it’s reference comes from Genesis 2:9 “the tree of life also in the midst of the garden”.
Ngh Kwtb Myyxh Uew
The words underlined in the Scroll are “My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? “
After this, Jesus knowing that all things were now accomplished, that the scripture might be fulfilled, saith, I thirst. Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: and they filled a spunge with vinegar, and put it upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth. When Jesus therefore had received the vinegar, he said, It is finished: and he bowed his head, and gave up the ghost. John 19:28-30
God gave Adam a choice in the Garden of Eden. He chose wrong and plunged the world into death and sorrow in which state the world still exists. We can chose to stay under the curse by simply doing nothing as we are already condemned. Or you can chose to accept the Messiah spoken of as Adam and Eve were judged. This Messiah has come already and you must choose. This choice will make an eternal change in you called the New Birth.
Then said Jesus again unto them, I go my way, and ye shall seek me, and shall die in your sins: whither I go, ye cannot come. Then said the Jews, Will he kill himself? because he saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come. And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world. I said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sins: for if ye believe not that I am he, ye shall die in your sins. John 8:21-24
The Creator has allowed mankind to make choices.
How will you choose?
Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new. 2 Corinthians 5:17
There was a man of the Pharisees, named Nicodemus, a ruler of the Jews: The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto him, Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do these miracles that thou doest, except God be with him. Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. Nicodemus saith unto him, How can a man be born when he is old? can he enter the second time into his mother’s womb, and be born? Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. That which is born of the flesh is flesh; and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be born again. John 3:1-7
1 Corinthians 11:17-34
The fourth cup – cup of fellowship
Exodus 6:7 And I will take you to me for a people
This word is used in the Scripture to mean:
The following things are exactly what are going to happen to those who have been made alive to God by the blood of the New Covenant.
– take in the hand,
– to take and carry along,
– to take from,
– take out of,
– take, carry away,
– take away,
– take in marriage,
Some would say, “Jesus is not the Messiah. He did not deliver Israel and there has been no peace for 2,000 years”. Moses Lead the Children of Israel from Egypt and because of the unchanged heart of the people all but two were left in the wilderness to die. The children of those inherited the Promised Land, but soon 10 tribes of the northern tribes were driven out of Israel. The other two tribes were driven from the land in 586 Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon.
In the ninth year of Hoshea the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away into Assyria, and placed them in Halah and in Habor by the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. For so it was, that the children of Israel had sinned against the LORD their God, which had brought them up out of the land of Egypt, from under the hand of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and had feared other gods,
1 Kings 17:6,7
This does not change any of the promises of God. He came to change our hearts and for 2,000 to call out a vast number of Gentiles. He will return and restore the land to Israel all of whom live to the end of the time of “Jacob’s Trouble”. They will see Jesus return to Earth and at that time will have a changed heart according to the New Covenant of Jeremiah 31:31
we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads. And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed an hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. Of the tribe of Juda were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Nepthalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. After this I beheld, and, lo, a great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands; And cried with a loud voice, saying, Salvation to our God which sitteth upon the throne, and unto the Lamb. Revelation 7:3-10 (and the rest of the Bible)
Revelation 22:16, 17 I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. And the Spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him that heareth say, Come. And let him that is athirst come. And whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.